- The Oklahoma state flag honors
more than 60 groups of Native Americans and their ancestors. The blue field
comes from a flag carried by Choctaw soldiers during the civil war. The center
shield is the battle shield of an Osage warrior. It is made of buffalo hide and
decorated with eagle feathers. Two symbols of peace lie across the shield. One
is the calumet, or peace pipe. The other is an olive branch. Crosses on the
shield are Native American signs for stars, representing high ideals.
|Oklahoma offers a variety of museums, attractions and events
dedicated to the preservation of Native American culture. For more information contact the
Oklahoma Tourism and Recreeation Department, Division of Travel and Tourism, in Oklahoma
||CHOCTAW NATION HISTORICAL MUSEUM - TUSKAHOMA
- Second Empire-style structure served as Choctaw Nation capitol 1884 - 1907.
Museum features items brought on Trail of Tears exodus in mid-19th century.
Courtroom still in use
Capital city of
Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma since 1839. Sites include 1867 Capitol Building, 1845 Supreme
Court Building, 1874 Cherokee National Prison and homes of past's prominent citizens.
Cherokee Heritage Center preserves tribal history and culture
||POTAWATOMI INDIAN MUSEUM -
Displays headdresses, beadwork and birch baskets, as well as artifacts produced
prior to resettlement by Potawatomi from Lake Huron area. 1885 Shawnee Friends Mission
|ATALOA LODGE MUSEUM -
Museum boasts impressive collection of Kachina dolls, Native American aftifacts and
basketr, and black-on-black poetry by Maria Martinez. Guided tours.
||CREEK COUNCIL HOUSE MUSEUM -
Built 1878 by Muscogee (Creek) Nation after forced resettlement. Served as capitol of
tribal affairs until 1906. Museum preserves tribal history and culture. Guided tours
||INDIAN CITY USA -
Only authentically restored complex of Native American villages in the country.
Traditional ceremonies, dance, and arts and crafts. Museum. Guided tours
||RIVERSIDE INDIAN SCHOOL -
One of oldest continuopusly active Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools. Establlished
1871 by Quaker agent who taught eight students in first class
|BLACK KETTLE MUSEUM -
who died during attack of Lieutenant Colonel George Custer's troops in 1868 Battle of
Washita. Museum documents battle and tribal history
||FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES MUSEUM -
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole tribes made to rrelocate to Indian
Territory (later part of Oklahoma) after 1830 Indian Removal Act. History documented
through art, artifacts and special events. Guided tours.
||MUSEUM OF THE RED RIVER
Museum founded from local private collection. Highlights of North and South
American artifacts include Caddoan pottery dating to A.D. 700. Replica turn-of-the-century
Choctaw Nation house
||SEQUOYAH'S HOME SITE -
Noted Cherokee scholar invented Cherokee Nation's writen language. Built cabin in
1829 to serve as home after resettlement of Oklahoma. Works Progress Administration
building covers original structure. National Historic Landmark.
|CHEROKEE COURTHOUSE -
Gore. Also called
"Tahlomteeskee," after chief who led tribe to western lands in 1809. Building
served as courthouse and capitol of re-established Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma
||FT SILL CEMETERIES -
Lawton. Cemeteries located on grounds of historic frontier fort. Chief
Geronimo's grave located at Apache Prisoner of War Cemetery. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker
and Kowa Chief Kicking Bird buried in Old Post Cemetery.
||PETER CONSER HOME -
Restored 1894 home of politician, businessman and leader of Choctaw Lighthorsemen-law
enforcement corps that patrolled Choctaw Nation during territorial days.
||SOUTHERN PLAINS INDIAN MUSEUM -
Anadarko. Arts and crafts of local and national Native American artists on display.
Southern Plains traditional costumes. Dioramas and mural. Adjacent to sculpture garden and
National Hall of Fame for Famous American Indians. Guided tours.
|CHICKASAW COUNCIL HOUSE MUSEUM -
Museum contains log structure, built 1856, that served as seat of tribal
government. Photographs and artifacts recount history of Chickasaw Bank nearby. Guided
||FT WASHITA HISTORIC SITE -
Fort built 1842 to protect Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes from raids by Plains Indians and
to encourage settlement. Union soldiers abandonedfort in 1861. Museum
||PLAINS INDIANS AND PIONEER MUSEUM -
Noted for unique presentations, museum utilizes murals, photos and oral history to bring
northwestern Oklahoma past to life.
||SPIRO MOUNDS ARCHAELOGICAL PARK -
Park encompasses 12 prehistoric mounds, evidence of Native American culture A.D.
850-1450. Artifacts and reconstructions. Interpretive center.
WILD WEST SHOWS
STATE CHILDREN'S SONG
GO TO STATE ICONS PAGE
Oklahoma's recorded history began in
1541 when Spanish explorer Coronado
ventured through the area on his quest for the "Lost City of Gold." The
land that would eventually be known as Oklahoma was part of the 1803 Louisiana
Beginning in the 1820s, the Five Civilized Tribes from the southeastern
United States were relocated to Indian Territory over numerous routes, the most famous
being the Cherokee "Trail of Tears." Forced off their
ancestral lands by state and federal governments, the tribes suffered great hardships
during the rigorous trips west. The survivors eventually recovered from the
dislocation through hard work and communal support. Gradually, new institutions and
cultural adaptations emerged and began a period of rapid development often called
the "Golden Age" of Indian Territory.
Following the destruction of the Civil War, Oklahoma became a part of the
booming cattle industry, ushering in the era of the cowboy. Western expansion
reached the territory in the late 1800s, sparking a controversy over the fate of the land.
Treaties enacted after the Civil War by the U.S. government forced the tribes to
give up their communal lands and accept individual property allotments to make way for
expansion. There was talk of using Indian Territory for settlement by African
Americans emancipated from slavery. However, the government relented to pressure,
much of it coming from a group known as "Boomers," who wanted
the rich lands opened to non-Indian settlement. The government decided to open the
western parts of the territory to settlers by holding a total of six land runs between
1889 and 1895. Settlers came from across the nation and even other countries like
Poland, Germany, Ireland and Slavic nations to stake their claims. And African
Americans, some who were former slaves of Indians, took part in the runs or accepted their
allotments as tribal members. In the years that followed, black pioneers founded and
settled entire communities in or near Arcadia, Boley, Langston, and Taft.
On November, 16, 1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state.
Statehood had become a sure thing, in part due to a discovery which made Oklahoma
the "place to go to strike it rich" -- oil. People came
from all parts of the world to seek their fortunes in Oklahoma's teeming oil fields.
Cities like Tulsa, Ponca City, Bartlesville, and Oklahoma City flourished.
Oklahomans are filled with pride for their land of diverse cultures,
hundreds of scenic lakes and rivers, and genuine warmth and friendliness. This proud
Oklahoma spirit is echoed through the accomplishments of our citizens,
such as humorist and "Cherokee Cowboy" Will Rogers, Olympian and American Indian
Jim Thorpe, African American author Ralph Ellison, astronaut Thomas Stafford, jazz
musician Charlie Christian, and country music superstars Reba McEntire, Vince Gill, and
The history of African Americans in Oklahoma is a story unlike any to be found in
the United States. African Americans came to this region as cowboys, settlers,
gunfighters, and farmers. By statehood in 1907, they outnumbered both Indians and
first- and second-generation Europeans. They created more all-black towns in
Oklahoma than in the rest of the country put together, produced some of the
country's greatest jazz musicians, and led some of the nation's greatest civil rights
One of the great omissions in the history books was the role African
American soldiers played in the Civil War. Blacks first fought alongside whites
during the Battle of Honey Springs, an engagement fought on July 17, 1863, on a small
battlefield outside present-day Muskogee.
Black troops held the Union's center line in that battle, breaking the
Confederate's center and giving the Union a critical win that secured both the
Arkansas River and the Texas Road (the region's major transportation
routes). This ensured the Union a solid foothold in Indian Territory -- one it never
A year after the Civil War ended in 1865, Congress passed a bill providing
provisions for black troops, what became the 9th and 10th cavalry. The 10th went on
to be headquartered at Fort Gibson; the 9th was stationed at Fort Sill. Black
soldiers built Oklahoma forts; fought bandits, cattle thieves, and Mexican revolutionaries
(including Pancho Villa); and policed borders during the land runs. They also played
a critical role in the Indian Wars of the late 1800s, earning the respect of Native
Americans who gave them the name of "Buffalo Solders."
After the Civil War, Freedmen and new African American settlers in
Oklahoma could vote, study, and move about with relative freedom. Pamphlets
distributed throughout the South urged African Americans to join land runs in Indian
Territory, to create businesses, cities and perhaps even the first black state.
Pamphlets promising a black paradise in Oklahoma lured tens of thousands of former slaves
from the South. Eventually 27 black towns grew to encompass 10 percent of Indian
Today many of Oklahoma's original black towns and districts are gone, but
those that remain still host rodeos, Juneteenth celebrations, and community reunions.
America is steeped in the traditions of the west and the American Indian,
and no state boasts a richer heritage of both that Oklahoma.
Indians from more than 67 tribes, including the Cherokee, Choctaw,
Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, Osage, Cheyenne, Sac and Fox, Delaware, Apache, and Pawnee,
call Oklahoma their home today. Such famous Indians as Sequoyah, Black Beaver, Jim
Thorpe, and Maria Tallchief contributed to Oklahoma's development.
The state is also the setting for vast horse and cattle ranches, rodeos,
and working cowboys. Such famous cowboys as Bill Pickett, Tom Mix, Gene Autry, and
Will Rogers hail from Oklahoma.
Before Coronado and his colleagues landed on America's shores, Indians resided in
what would become Oklahoma.
Remnants of several different hunter-agricultural civilizations have been
found in Oklahoma, including a site near Anadarko, where archaeologists discovered the
bones of a mammoth and several spear points.
Scientists estimate the mammoth was killed more than 11,000 years ago and
have identified the spearheads as belonging to an ancient group of hunters known as the
From 500 to 1300 A.D., a group known as the Mound Builders lived in an
area just west of the Arkansas/Oklahoma border in LeFlore County. Artifacts left in
ceremonial burial site "mounds" show the Mound Builders were highly skilled
artisans with a sophisticated economy.
By the time explorers discovered the mysterious earthen mounds in the 17th
and 18th centuries, the culture centered there was extinct, and the Osage and Quapay
tribes laid claim to the region. Today, the area has been preserved for visitors and
scientific study as Spiro Mound State Park.
First recorded as living the Osage River in what is now state of Missouri> The Tribe moved west to follow buffalo, clashing with Plains tribes. Factions fought on opposing sides during the Civil War. Osage Indians settled in the rich woodlands of northeastern Oklahoma around
1796. Shortly thereafter, the area became United States property as part of the
Louisiana Purchase. When a band of Cherokees settled near the Osage (after
voluntarily moving from the East Coast), territorial violence erupted between the two
tribes with white settlers caught in the middle.
Eventually the United States negotiated a truce with Osage Chief Clermont,
dropping all damage claims against the tribe if the Osage would cede seven million acres
of land to the federal government. The Osage continued attacking, however, and were
finally forced to cede the rest of their lands to the United States in 1825. They
then moved to Kansas territory, but it was soon opened to white settlement. In 1870,
Congress sold the rest of the Osage lands, turned the money over to the tribe and opened a
reservation for them which later became Osage County.
Before long, oil was struck on this land and the Osage became the
wealthiest people per capita in the United States. The Osage Nation headquarters at Pawhuska and numbers 14,500 nation wide.
The Quapaw history is less violent, yet more tragic than that of the Osage.
Prior to 1820, the tribe sold 45 million acres of their land south of the
Arkansas river to the U.S. government for $18,000. The United States took the rest
of their land in 1824 when four Quapaw chiefs, induced with alcohol and $500 each, ceded
Homeless, the tribe settled near the Red River on land received from the
Caddos, a tribe from Texas. However, crop failures in successive years diminished
the tribe, and the survivors scattered. The Quapaw were primarily farmers. Dome-shaped, bark covered houses comprised farming villages where women gathered food and cared for children, and men managed tribal affairs. There are approximately 1900 Quapaw living in Oklahoma.
In 1890, the Quapaw reorganized and obtained a sliver of property in
northeastern Indian Territory. Zinc and lead were soon discovered on this land, and
by the 1920s tribal members were gaining as much as $1.2 million a year in royalties from
Five Civilized Tribes
The lands which the Osage and Quapaw had ceded to the United States government
were turned over to the Indians of the old Southeast, who were being relocated from their
tribal homes. Five tribes of these Indians had come to be known as the
Civilized Tribes because of their advanced systems of government, education and
law enforcement. These tribes were the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek
and Seminole. The most peaceful removal among the Five Civilized Tribes was
the Choctaw in 1820. The other four tribes followed, with removals becoming
increasingly bloodier from internal skirmishes and bouts with white men.
Sac and Fox Nation headquarters in Stroud, Oklahoma and has a population of 2,245. Former Great Lakes - area tribes allied against encroaching tribes. Became Sac and Fox Nation in 1885, establishing government and court system. The 300 year old swan dance is performed at the annual July powwow. The
Sac and Fox Constitution
Olympic winner Jim Thorpe is one of most athletes of all time and was Sac and Fox. More history on the Sauk and Fox tribe at http://www.dickshovel.com/sf.html.
The Seminoles were the last to make the westward journey in 1842.
The Choctaw even brought their crack police force called the
Lighthorsemen to Indian Territory. This law enforcement unit maintained
justice and safety for much of the region.
Although a relatively peaceful move, the most tragic Indian removal to
Oklahoma was that of the Cherokee. A portion of the tribe had already moved to
Arkansas in the late 18th century. The rest were forced to move after the removal
Act of 1830.
The Cherokees' travels across the Missouri and Arkansas wilderness during
harsh winter months became known in history as the "Trail of Tears" because many
members of the tribe died and were buried along the way.
By 1856, each of the Five Civilized Tribes established territorial
boundaries in the frontier. Therese were all national domains, not reservations.
Settled in their new homes, the Five Civilized Tribes began building
cultures out of the Oklahoma wilderness, laying the foundation of a society which would
carry the territory to statehood and modern times.
The Five Civilized Tribes each formed their own constitutional governments
and established advanced public school systems. The nations had powerful judicial
systems and strong economies. Some tribes brought black slaves and freedmen with
them from the East and built plantations, villages, and towns in the new "Indian
To protect the five nations from angry Plains Indians who were upset at
having to share their lands with the newcomers, the U.S. Army built several forts.
These included Fort Washita near Durant and Fort Gibson, near Muskogee.
One Cherokee who moved west in 1829 was one of America's most honored
Indians, Sequoyah. He was intrigued with the white man's ability to
write, so after 12 years of experimenting and study, Sequoyah created an 86-letter
syllabary for the Cherokee language. This alphabet was so efficient it could be
learned in less than a month and became the standard means of communication for the
Cherokee. Sequoyah's home is still standing near Sallisaw.
During the Civil Way, individual Indians were divided between loyalty to
the Confederacy or neutrality. However, tribal governments officially sided with the
South. The rivalry turned to violence as Confederate factions attacked those Indians
favoring neutrality, forcing them to flee into Kansas.
In the Reconstruction Era after the Civil War, the United States
government confiscated the western portions of the Indian Territory and began resettling
other tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche.
The separate nations of the Five Civilized Tribes would survive until
Oklahoma's statehood in 1907.
After the Civil Way, many of the lands taken away from the Five Civilized Tribes
in Oklahoma Territory were turned over to tribes from the West. As non-Indian
expansion pressed westward and the railroads built networks of tracks, the federal
government decided to relocate the western Indians, whose homes stood in the way of
Moving in to these newly-designated lands were two great Indian leaders
who lived their last days in the territory: Apache warrior Geronimo and
Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle.
Geronimo's relentless battle to stanch the expansion of settlers in the
desert and mountains of the Southwest led him to incarceration at the Ft. Sill Military
Reservation near Lawton where he lived to an old age.
Chief Black Kettle was an outspoken proponent of peace with white men, but
he was killed in the last great battle between Indians and the U.S. Army in Oklahoma.
Black Kettle was among several chiefs who signed the peace treaty of Medicine
Lodge, Kansas, in 1867, which guaranteed the Cheyenne and Arapaho land in Oklahoma along
with goods and services. As with many other Indian treaties, the federal government
failed to uphold the bargain. Several bands of Cheyenne and Arapaho grew impatient,
carrying out raids on government installations and many inhabitants.
Conflicts between Indians and settlers continued in Oklahoma until the
20th century, although not as violent as in the Washita River Battle. The Five
Civilized Tribes' efforts to maintain autonomy disappeared in 1905 when they attempted to
organize an Indian state named Sequoyah. The federal government rejected this idea
in favor of a single state combining the Oklahoma and Indian Territories. Thus,
Oklahoma became the 46th state on November 16, 1907.
When Indian and Oklahoma territories achieved statehood under one banner,
Indians and settlers joined efforts to develop the state's cultural and economic assets.
According to the 1990 census, Oklahoma's Indian population is 252,420, the
largest of any state. Currently, 35 tribes maintain tribal councils in Oklahoma.
Although Indians in Oklahoma are an active part of modern society, many
tribes continue their customs and ceremonial rites in powwows scheduled throughout the
year. These colorful powwows feature Indians dancing in native dress and are
generally open to the public. Many major Indian events and museums are found in
Oklahoma, providing an authentic glimpse at one of Oklahoma's most important pieces of
America's working cowboy began his history on the Texas plains where, after the
Civil War, ranchers found they had a plentiful supply of beef with no place to sell it.
Demand for beef existed along the East Coast, but to fulfill that
need, Texas ranchers had to move cattle to the railroads, and the closest
ones were in Kansas.
Between the cattle ranches and railroads lay Oklahoma, the eland of the
great cattle trails between 1866 and 1889.
As cattle drives crossed the Oklahoma plains, drovers recognized the value
of Oklahoma's land for grazing, and the economical advantages of originating a herd in the
territory. Oklahoma consequently turned into a prime site for cattle ranches and
continues to be a thriving center for livestock.
Although the ranch cowboys of history are still working the ranches today,
their lifestyle has changed. Modern cowboys live with their families in comfortable
homes and use advanced technology in working cattle. Horses are still used on the
range, but trucks are more common. Helicopters and airplanes also supplement horses
in herding cattle. Scientific knowledge of animal husbandry and irrigation planning
are as practical to the modern-day cowboy as the rope and saddle were to the cowboy of
Branding irons are still used for identifying cattle by searing permanent
marks into the animals hides.
Brands were an early deterrent against cattle being lost or stolen,
similar to serial numbers. Designed to be functional, brands are simple, legible and
easily identifiable. Despite their simplicity, many cattlemen hold their brand
symbols in high esteem and name their ranches after them.
After cattlemen and settlers came to Oklahoma and Indian territories, outlaws were
attracted to this wild frontier country of the late 1800s. Law enforcement hadn't
been firmly established in the territories and the landscape offered many places where
outlaws and their gangs could hide, such as the rocks, caves and trees in what is now
Cave State Park near Wilburton.
Outlaws in Oklahoma robbed banks and trains, stole horses and cattle.
Some were quite infamous and dangerous, achieving legendary status and making
heroes out of the lawmen who brought the criminals to justice.
Such was the fate of Bill Doolin, whose gang battled U.S.
Marshals in one of the most historic shootouts in the West in 1893.
Heck Thomas tracked Doolin for three years, finally ambushing and killing Doolin
on a quiet country road in northeastern Payne County.
Another famous lawman was Bass Reeves, believed to be the
first African American deputy marshal west of the Mississippi River. A
tough and fearless man, Reeves served for 35 years, longer than any lawman on record in
Reeves was born into slavery in Texas but escaped to Indian Territory
before the Civil War. Reeves was one of 200 deputies commissioned by
Isaac C. Parker, the "Hanging Judge," after 1875 to track down
criminals in lawless western Arkansas and Indian Territory. Many Indians distrusted
white deputies, so Parker believed blacks would be particularly effective lawmen in Indian
Associated with the Doolin Gang were a few female outlaws, including one
of the most famous bad women of all times, Belle Starr.
Judge Parker sentenced Starr in 1882 to federal prison on a horse-stealing
charge. After her release, Starr lived quietly on her homestead near Eufaula, until
she was murdered on a road one wintry day. Starr's killer has never been brought to
WILD WEST SHOWS
The Hollywood and rodeo cowboys got their starts in wild west shows and circuses
that became popular around 1900. Three of the more popular wild west shows
originated in Oklahoma from the Mulhall Ranch, the Pawnee Bill Ranch and the Miller 101
Zach Mulhall's ranch near Guthrie covered 80,000 acres in Oklahoma
Territory. He started a wild west show starring his daughter Lucille, the
world's first "cowgirl," who became a favorite of President Theodore
Roosevelt. The show toured from 1900 to 1915.
Gordon William Lillie built his ranch near Pawnee and became famous as
"Pawnee Bill." This name was given to him by the Pawnee Indians, who made
him their "white chief" after he saved the tribe from starvation during a harsh
Pawnee Bill and some of his Indian friends later joined Buffalo Bill's
Wild West Show, but in 1888, Lillie started his own. The Pawnee Bill Show featured
his wife, May, a refined Philadelphian who learned to ride broncs sidesaddle and became a
sharpshooter with guns. Pawnee Bill's show toured the world until 1913.
The ranch, with many relics and memorabilia, is also the home of an
authentic 60-foot poster advertisement for a 1900 Pawnee Bill Wild West Show performance
in Blackwell. The ranch and museum are open to the public.
Perhaps the most popular of all wild west shows originated on the Miller
Brothers' 101 Ranch near Ponca City, built by Col. George Washington Miller and his three
sons. Their show toured the world from 1908 until the Great Depression and even
included a team of Cossacks, but it remained true to its western roots with headline acts
featuring cowboys and Indians.
The rodeo was born on the range where cowboys pitted their herding skills against
each other and ranches competed for bragging rights. The wild west shows picked up
these competitions and included them as entertainment. Although the shows later
dissolved, the competitions evolved into rodeos, the only national spectator sport
originating entirely in the United States.
A typical rodeo includes a variety of events to test a cowboy's skill.
From calf roping and steer wrestling to saddle-bronc an bull riding, the degree of
danger varies but the competition is always exciting.
More than a hundred rodeos take place throughout the year in Oklahoma,
ranging from junior rodeos to high school, intercollegiate and professional events.
Oklahoma's rodeos also feature women's competitions where cowgirls compete in rodeo
events, barrel racing contests and rodeo queen competitions. Indian rodeos are
another major Oklahoma attraction.
The name "Oklahoma" comes from the Choctaw words:
"okla" meaning people and "humma" meaning red, so the state's name
literally means "red people."
Oklahoma has the largest American Indian population of any state.
Many of the 252,420 American Indians living in Oklahoma today are descendents from the
original 67 tribes inhabiting Indian Territory.
Thirty-nine of the American Indian tribes currently living in Oklahoma
are headquartered in the state.
The governor of Oklahoma is Frank Keating; the lieutenant governor is
Oklahoma's bipartisan state government houses a bicameral legislature.
Oklahoma has 43 colleges and universities.
The highest point in the state is Black Mesa in Cimarron County (4,973
feet); the lowest is due east of Idabel in McCurtain County (287 feet).
Oklahoma has more man-made lakes that any other state, with over one
million surface areas of water and 2,000 more miles of shoreline than the Atlantic and
Gulf coasts combined.
Oklahoma is the third largest natural gas-producing state in the nation.
Oklahoma ranks fourth in the nation in the production of all wheat,
fourth in cattle and calf production; fifth in the production of pecans; sixth in peanuts
and eight in peaches.
Oklahoma's four mountain ranges include the Ouachitas, Arbuckles,
Wichitas, and the Kiamichis.
Forests cover approximately 24 percent of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma is bordered by six states: Texas to the south and west,
Arkansas and Missouri to the east, Kansas to the north and Colorado and New Mexico at the
tip of the northwestern Oklahoma panhandle.
Oklahoma is comprised of 77 counties.
Oklahoma has a land area of 69,919 square miles and ranks 18 in the
nation in size.
According to 1990 U.S. census data, Oklahoma's population is 3,258,000.
Of those, 82.1 percent are white, 8 percent American Indian, 7.4 percent African
American, 2.7 Hispanics, and 1.1 Asian.
Oklahoma's two most populous cities are Oklahoma City, with 463,201
residents, and Tulsa, with 374,851. The next largest cities are Norman, with a
population of 87,290, and Lawton, which has 86,028 people.
The official song and anthem of the State of Oklahoma is "Oklahoma," composed
and written by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein.
"Brand new state, Brand new state, gonna treat you great!
Gonna give you barley, carrots and pertaters,
Pasture fer the cattle, Spinach and Termayters!
Flowers on the prairie where the June bugs zoom,
Plen'y of air and plen'y of room,
Plen'y of room to swing a rope!
Plen'y of heart and plen'y of hope!
Oklahoma, where the wind comes sweepin' down the plain,
And the wavin' wheat can sure smell sweet
When the wind comes right behind the rain.
Oklahoma, ev'ry night my honey lamb and I
Sit alone and talk and watch a hawk makin' lazy circles in the sky.
We know we belong to the land
And the land we belong to is grand!
And when we say - Yeeow■ A-yip-i-o-ee ay!
We're only sayin' You're doin' fine, Oklahoma! Oklahoma - O.K."
The official children's song of the State of Oklahoma is the song "Oklahoma, My
Native Land", composed and written by Martha Kemm Barrett.
The words of the official state children's song are:State Map with Counties
"As I travel the roads of America, such wonderful sights I can see.
But nothing compares to the place I love;
The perfect home for you and for me.
Yes, Oklahoma, my native land. I am proud to say your future's
looking grand. Yes, Oklahoma, such history. Ev'ry day you give a
gift just for me.
I see a Scissortail Flycatcher cut through the clean air as
mistletoe kisses the branches ev'rywhere. Redbuds open ev'ry single
spring. I hear a Pow Wow beat the rhythm of the old ways as oil
wells pump back mem'ries of the boom days. Only Oklahoma has these things.
Yes, Oklahoma, my native land. I am proud to say your future's
looking grand. Yes, Oklahoma, such history. Ev'ry day you give a
gift just for me. Perfect home for you. The perfect home for me.
It's only Oklahoma for me."
Government Resources: Links
Indian Health Service
(IHS) has established an agency home page. It contains
detailed information about the agency, its providers, and the
administrators. It also provides an on-line tour of the Indian Health
The U.S. Department of the Interior's Land Management Bureau has an
internet site called the
American Information Forum. There is information available
at this site regarding Native American Program Office, Government to
Government relations, the Indian Minerals Steering Committee, the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and many other groups.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs,
of Indian Education Program's (OIEP) web site provides an
overview of the purpose, programs, and activities of the OIEP. There are
sections on the history of the BIA, the OIEP mission statement, OIEP
goals, and much more.<
On a site visit to New York, I got a first-hand look at the
technological advances the Oneida Nation is making. They have linked a
housing development together with fiber optic cables, begun developing a
native font and interactive computer program to revive their language,
and created the
Nation home page. This home page provides information on
their Treaties Project, historical facts, and other ongoing projects.
The Oneida are constantly adding new information to their page, so check
it out regularly.
Citizen Band Potawatomi Tribe informational site includes a
brief tribal history, an explanation of the name "Potawatomi",
and a description of the tribal seal. Also available at this site is a
link to other Native American resources via the
South and Eastern Tribes (USET) have developed a home page
containing information about the USET organization, a membership list
with contact information, copies of USET resolutions, and links to other
Native resources. This page is sponsored by the Oneida Nation.
United Keetoowah Band World Wide Web site contains
information about the Keetoowah offices, Council, committees, news, and
additional online Native American resources. There is also a section
concerning the Proceedings of the Native American Symposium with the
Keetoowah, the U.S. Government, and the State of Arkansas.
Art and Cultural Resources:
To stay in touch with the pulse of the Native Music scene visit the
Rainbow Walker Music Home Page. This site represents a
Native American music outlet specializing in traditional and
contemporary releases. Educational material about traditional Native
American music, Pow-Wow music, Contemporary music and much more is
available at this location.
Glenn Welker has developed an e-text archive of
American literature. Included are stories, poetry/music,
speeches, documents, earth prayers, and writings of native youth.
Native Art Page highlights the works of local artists from
the Caribou region of British Columbia. Included in this collection are
different visual art forms, paintings, carvings, chalk, and pen and ink.
Indian Computer Arts Project (AICAP) was created by Turtle
Heart, an Ojibwe artist, to allow the exchange of ideas and works
relating to Native American art and issues. This page will give you all
the details about this project.
Indian Culture Page has many links to cultural information.
Included in these links are the BIA home page, information from the
Institute of American Indian Arts and the American Indian Art Museum ,
and the results of a Webcrawler search on Native Americans.
Heritage + Lineage + Spirituality and honoring the Native way are the
directives of the
American Art Gallery (NAAG). This gallery is an internet
provider of authentic, finished American Indian art. From the NAAG home
page you can also view the organization newsletters, a statement from
NAAG president, Suzanne Ballew, and take a guided tour of the gallery.
Museum specializes in Native American and Southwestern
material, both historical and contemporary. They have a large collection
of Native American Art and are strong supporters of contemporary Native
American artists. This home page provides information about the programs
and activities of the Heard Museum.
To take a virtual tour of Southwestern images on display in the
Electric Gallery, click here. Through this page you not
only have the ability to look at the art, you can also purchase a piece
from your desktop.
Indian Library Collection was funded with the aim of
returning unique cultural materials to California's Native Americans and
making the collection available to all citizens through their local
libraries. This home page includes information on the project, tribal
bibliographies, a short illustrated text defining shapes and uses of
California Indian basketry, and much more.
The work of Cree artist, Wabimeguil, is featured in this electronic
gallery. You can take a tour of the gallery, learn about the artist, and
even purchase your favorite piece from the
Art Home Page.
Arizona's America Indian Studies Program has created an
informational home page for the Internet. Included in this page is
information about the American Indian Studies Programs, the American
Indian Graduate Center, the Native American Resource Center, Pow Wow
information, and a link to
Ink, a Native American On-line Publication.
Indian Policy Center (NIPC) , located at George Washington
University, maintains a gopher server with a wealth of information on
topics such as culture, education, environmental protection, and tribal
governance. There is also a new connection to the
through the Library of Congress. All of the new and "hot"
information can be found under the heading "Useful Data".
Salish Kootenai College,
located in Pablo, Montana on the Flathead Reservation, has an
informational World Wide Web site. Users can access general information
about Salish Kootenai College, campus information, a message from
President Joe McDonald, or the college's mission statement and goals.
Education Initiative (NEI) is a collaborative effort among
the nation's regional educational laboratories (RELs), which are funded
by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and
Improvement. Not only does this site offer information about this
initiative, it also links to Native Education Resources in the
University has a file transfer protocol site with several
files addressing Native topics. Tribal College addresses, lists of
federally recognized tribes (along with their phone numbers and
addresses), examples of Native fonts for Macintosh and Windows, and
issues of the Native American Newsletter are just a few of the files
available at this site.
Fond du Lac Tribal and
Community College has recently established a WWW site in
addition to their already accessible
site. Resources at this site include information about the
college, an Ojibwe to English (and vice versa) translator, and other
American Indian information sources.
Native American Network (ENAN) site is housed at the
University of New Mexico College of Education. From this site you can
access the ENAN hotlist which has connections to organizations involved
in American Indian life. There is also an area that discusses the
creation, goals, and future of ENAN projects.
Community College, established in 1968, was the first
tribally controlled college to be established in the United States and
was also the first to be fully accredited. This home page includes
information about the college, its curriculum, and pictures of the
Americans at Princeton is a student organization/support
group for Native Hawaiians, American Indians, and Native Alaskan
students. Included in this home page are links and information on
various Native American resources.
Organizations and Networks:
All of the federal agencies who operate Native American programs have
sponsored an information-sharing network for, and about, Native
Americans. This network is called
and is named after the Native American Code Talkers, heroes of two world
wars. Available at this site is government program information, an
electronic consultation feature, and links to other interesting Native
American Internet information.
Journalist Association (NAJA) has created a WWW page on the
internet. This page includes news from The Native Voice newspaper, NAJA
information, and links to sites of interest to Native American
of Native American Culture (SNAC) is a newly formed campus
organization (fall 1994) at North Carolina State University. The web
site contains general information about SNAC, information about officers
and members, meeting schedules, upcoming events, links to NCSU Native
American organizations, and more.
World Documentation Project's (FWDP) online documents
archive contains over 300 documents on Fourth World Nations in the
Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, Melanesia, and the Pacific. Included are
essays, position papers, resolutions, treaties, organizational
information, UN documents, speeches and declarations. These archives are
split into rough geographical areas such as FWDP/Americas/. Under the
/Resolutions/ section there are several areas relating to Native
Americans including Navajo-Hopi Land Commission papers, the National
Congress of American Indians Resolutions, and much more.
Pathways is a national electronic infrastructure developed
to connect Native American Nations with resources specifically designed
to meet the local community, educational, and tribal needs. Detailed
information about Electronic Pathways is available at this site.
Indian Reservation Program (EIRP) maintains a very
extensive gopher site. Tribal and Federal courts, grant information,
events in Indian country, and Native American literature are only a few
of the subject headings at this site. There is also a very useful
internet resources area with links to the Native Education Centre,
Enviro Link, the Institute of Global Communications, to name a few.
American Net Server is a gopher site that contains
information about Indian law, Electronic Bulletin Board System
information, Native American newsletters, job opportunities, Native
American fonts, and various other useful resources.
Education Society, Native Education Centre maintains a very
useful gopher site. Included in the information available at this site
are reviews of books and films with Native themes, a collection of
speeches on Native issues, and a wealth of FreeNet information.